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The Virtual Anaesthesia Textbook

Patient Monitoring

James Mitchell


General material

General overviews of basic monitoring:

The Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing has an on-line presence.
The ASA Closed Claims Project has produced a number of publications on the role of physiologic monitoring in anaesthesia mishaps.
My own notes on monitoring and measurement in anaesthesia can be found among my other study notes.

Standard monitors

Some material on specific monitors is contained on sites covering monitoring in 'general material' listed above.


Most ECG-related material is focussed on 12-lead ECG and applications in cardiology rather than patient monitoring.

The ECG Learning Center in Cyberspace has detailed material on ECG interpretation.
A detailed tutorial and library of 12-lead ECGs maintained by Dean Jenkins and Stephen Gerred.

Other libraries of ECGs:

Non-invasive Blood Pressure

An outline of methods of NIBP measurement is available at Health Perfect.
A detailed description of NIBP waveform analysis at Dynapulse.

Invasive Blood Pressure

A detailed primer on pulmonary artery catheters and pressure measurement from Manbit Technologies.
The ASA Closed Claims Project published data on central line complications in 1996.

Gas Analysis

Dave Sainsbury's notes on CO2 monitoring

Peripheral Nerve Stimulation

University of Sydney's anaesthesia notes include an excellent review.
Dave Sainsbury's notes on the neuromuscular junction and PNS

Pulse Oximetry

The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists Update in Anaesthesia journal includes an article on pulse oximetry.
Dave Sainsbury's presentation on oxygen monitoring including pulse oximetry.

Specialized Monitors


A handbook on BIS from Aspect.


Transoesophageal Echocardiography

A detailed history of ultrasound development.
A library of still images and references from Manbit Technologies.

Collections of images:

Oesophageal Doppler Monitoring

Deltex Medical manufactures a probe and provides an outline of its function and operation.

Standards of Practice

Professional bodies in many countries outline guidelines or standards for intraoperative monitoring.

Manufacturers of Monitoring Equipment

The major anaesthesia monitoring manufacturers are:

Other manufacturers include:

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visitors to this chapter since April 29th 2000.

James Mitchell
St Vincent's Hospital
Melbourne, Australia.
Updated: 22 August 2012